Somalia

Somalia

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With a population estimated at 15.1 million in 2018, Somalia is rapidly expanding at an annual population growth rate of 2.9%.[1] The Somali population is the youngest among Arab countries with 66.6% of the total population below the age of 24 and a very high fertility rate of 6.3 births per woman in 2015.[1] The majority of the Somali population is rural, with an urban population of 45% in 2018.[2]


Somalia faces drought risks, food insecurity, poor healthcare, and lack of access to basic services and livelihood. It is estimated that 4.4 million people required water, sanitationand hygiene (WASH) services in 2018. But above all, Somalia suffers decades of one of the world’s most complex and protracted conflicts. The under-five years and maternal mortality rates in Somalia are amongst the highest in the world; one out of every seven Somali children dies before reaching 5 years old and the maternal mortality rate was 732 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 down from 1080 per 100,000 live births in 2000.[3]


Somalia has the highest value forMultidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) among Arab states. According to the last available data, 82.2% of Somalis were considered poor across multiple dimensions.[4] Also, 6.2 million Somalis are considered to be in need of humanitarian assistance in 2018 following decades of climatic crises and internal strife.[3]


As the majority of Somalis rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, predictable seasonal shocks like flooding and drought continue to pose a serious challenge to an already weak economy. An estimated 3.2% of children below five years of age were severely malnourished in 2018. Failing to meet the current response plan will leave 1 in 2 Somalis without access to emergency health services, while 4.3 million at risk of diseases due to inadequate access to water, sanitationand hygiene in 2018.[5]


In 2012, the adult literacy rate was estimated at 31% for Somalia —26% for females against 36% for males, according to a joint UNDP/World Bank survey. Despite a substantial increase in the number of operational primary and secondary schools, opportunities for formal education are still inaccessible. About 50% of the population aged 6-29 was not attending schools in 2012, with females exceeding males.[4]


Somalia is a low-income country [6] with GDP (current USD) amounting to USD 7.3 billion and a low GDP per capita reaching USD 499.8 in 2017.[6] Economic activity is estimated to have expanded by 3.7% in 2014, driven by growth in agriculture, construction, and telecommunications, and declined to 2.5% in 2018. Inflation remained under control at about 2.8% in 2018. External debt leveled as high as 71.5% of GDP in 2017.[7]


Labor force participation rate in Somalia remained constant over the last years averaging 46.2% in 2018, with women participating less in the labor force. Women participation rate stood at 18.7% compared to 74.4% for men. The unemployment rate also remained constant at 6% and the gender gap between men and women in unemployment was low. Women unemployment rate registered 6.8% in 2018 compared to 5.6% for men. Youth unemployment also scored close numbers for both sexes. Young men aging between 15 and 24 had an unemployment rate of 9.5% compared to 11.4% for young women.[8]

 

This overview has been drafted by the ADP team based on most available data as of 28 December 2018.

 

 

Sources:

 

[1] World Population Prospects, Population Division, United Nations https://population.un.org/wpp/
[2] World Urbanization Prospects, Population Division, United Nations https://population.un.org/wup/
[3] UNICEF https://www.unicef.org/
[4] UNDP Human Development Report 2018 http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2018_human_development_statistical_update.pdf
[5] United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) “Somalia Humanitarian Response Plan January-December 2018” https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/2018_somalia_hrp_final_draft_18122017_0.pdf
[6] World Development Indicators, The World Bank https://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=wdi-database-archives-(beta)
[7] International Monetary Fund (IMF), February 2018, IMF Country Report No. 18/55  https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/CR/Issues/2018/02/26/Somalia-2017-Article-IV-Consultation-and-First-Review-Under-the-Staff-Monitored-Program-45662
[8] KILM – International Labour Organization (ILO) https://www.ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/research-and-databases/kilm/lang--en/index.htm

 



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Data Highlighted

  • The under-five years and maternal mortality rates in Somalia are amongst the highest in the world; one out of every seven Somali children dies before reaching 5 years old and the maternal mortality rate was 732 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 down from 1080 per 100,000 live births in 2000.

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